You open the dishwasher and you can't tell if the dishes are clean or dirty. You ask your husband:
Have these been run?
When you use a dishwasher to clean dishes, you say that you "ran" the dishwasher. For example, an answer to the question above might be:
Yeah, I ran it this morning.
Some other machines that you "run" include:
Run the washing machine
Run the coffee maker
Usually the machines that you "run" should have a process with a clear starting and ending point like the ones above. But some people also use "run" for other machines that don't have a clearly defined process, like:
Run the vacuum
Run the fan
People also "run" computer programs. You can think of this as having a similar meaning to "running" a dishwasher: you start the program, and then it does some work and stops when it's finished.
You should also notice that the example sentence above says "Have these been run?" The word "these" is talking about the dishes. So you can either "run the dishwasher" or "run the dishes".
This kind of sentence is called a "passive" sentence. You use "have been ___ed" when you don't want to say who did something because you're trying to hide it or just because it's not important. In the example above, the speaker says "Have these been run" instead of "Did you run these?" because it's not important who ran the dishes. It could be any member of the family.
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