A collection of years in history that had some common them is called a "period in history". Many periods in history are well-known and have common names. For example:
- The Jurassic Period is when dinosaurs were alive
- The Stone Age is when people used tools made of stone
- The ancient Egyptian period
- The Industrial Revolution is the period when people started building factories and machines.
- The Ming Dynastyis a well-known time period in China when it was ruled by the Ming family.
Of course there are many others.
You can also call shorter and more recent lengths of time "historical periods". For example:
The 60's is one of my favorite historical periods.