“I'm descended from a famous 16th-century warrior.”
One of your ancestors is an interesting historical figure. You're bragging about it to a friend.
I'm descended from a famous 16th-century warrior.
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(someone) is descended from (someone)
Use this phrase to explain who someone's ancestors were. Your ancestors are the people like your great-great-grandparents, great-great-great-grandparents, and so on.
You can say that a person "is descended from" a single person:
She claims to be descended from Abraham Lincoln.
Or you can say that someone is descended from a group of people:
They're descended from the original inhabitants of the island.
a (first/second/19th/etc.)-century (something)
When English speakers say "20th century", it means the years from 1901-2000. Similarly, "18th century" is 1701-1800, and "first centry" is 1-100 A.D.
You can use this phrase as an adjective like this:
They discovered the sunken remains of a fifteenth-century trading ship.
They didn't have our modern 21st-century conveniences back then.
Without the hyphen ("-"), you can use this phrase as a noun too:
They've been fighting off and on since the 17th century.
A "warrior" is someone who fights in battles.
We mostly use the word "warrior" to talk about people from the past who fought hand-to-hand, using things like swords, bows and arrows, and spears. Warriors were not only strong, but also a little wild.
You could also call a modern soldier a "warrior". In that case, it would sound like that soldier was very strong, brave, and determined.