"Adolescent" is an adjective to describe teenagers. "Male" is an adjective to describe men.
The combined phrase "adolescent male ___" describes something associated with men which seems stupid and immature. For example, if you think that a grown man is being stupid by getting into fights with other men, you can say:
All of this adolescent male posturing... it's so immature!
Here are some other popular combinations with "adolescent male":
adolescent male fantasies
adolescent male behavior
adolescent male wish fulfillment
This phrase sounds kind of scientific, like you're describing the behavior of an animal.